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Title: Моральні основи права у філософії Фоми Аквінського
Other Titles: Moral basis of law in the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas
Authors: Несправа, М.В.
Nesprava, M.V.
Keywords: закон
суспільне благо
public good
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: ДДУВС
Citation: Несправа М.В. Моральні основи права у філософії Фоми Аквінського / М.В. Несправа // Науковий вісник Дніпропетровського державного університету внутрішніх справ. - 2017. – № 3 (87). –– С. 52-61
Abstract: Проаналізовано погляди Фоми Аквінського на проблему моральної основи права. Показано, що стрижневою чеснотою, котра визначає відносини між людьми, виступає справедливість. Через категорію справедливості охарактеризовано поняття природного і позитивного права. Право визначено як справедливість, якій надано форму закону. Доведено, що закон – це спрямоване на загальне благо і оприлюднене встановлення розуму того, хто покликаний піклуватися про все суспільство. Розкрито походження закону від божественного до природного і далі до людського. Обґрунтовано, що суд є законним в тій мірі, в якій він є актом справедливості.
Addressing to the Thomas Aquinas’s concept of meta-ethics has considerable scientific and practical interest in search the answers to the question of the value dimension of the law in the current Ukrainian state. The purpose of the paper is to show the role of morality as a source of law, the criterion of legality and the basis of order in the state on the basis of the analysis of Aquinas’s philosophical heritage. Thomas Aquinas presented the framework of the human soul moral construction, which consists of cardinal virtues. Such cardinal virtue as justice is the carcass design in this framework. The justice directs relations between people exactly, therefore, this virtue acts as a source of law. Summing up Aquinas's thoughts, author defines the law as justice, which is given the form of legality as a general integrity, which concerns not individual preferences, but the welfare of the community as a whole. This conclusion is a cornerstone for defining the principles of law-making in Ukraine. Aquinas first of all pointed out that the law is a rule and a measure of action according to which a person must act or abstain from action. The purpose of the law is public happiness. The general good of the state can’t flourish, if its citizens are not virtuous, at least those who are called to manage. Ultimately, Aquinas determined that the law is nothing but a common good and published establishment of the mind of one who is called to take care of the whole society. It is important for the Ukrainian society to establish that the moral virtues of universal justice are the actual criterions for assessing executive agencies, as law application bodies. And any normative act loses the power of the law if it does not serve the interests of the public good. The law makes people good in so far as human actions promote justice. Aquinas was convinced that if one accustoms people to avoid evil and do some good in fear of punishment, then eventually he can come to the point that he will act in such a way with pleasure and his own decision. Therefore, it is very important for Ukrainian law-enforcement officers to realize that the law intended to make people good, even by a punishment. The court is legal in so far as it is an act of justice. Aquinas' advices on the personal qualities of judges are also valuable for the implementation of judicial reform in Ukraine. The moral virtues of love, justice and prudence should be placed on the first place when judges evaluated. Thus, having analyzed the philosophical heritage of Thomas Aquinas, author argues that the cardinal moral virtue of justice should be the basis of the activities of the legislative, executive and judicial authorities, and become the basic criterion for assessing the activities of law enforcement bodies for the successful reformation of the legal system of Ukraine.
Appears in Collections:Науковий вісник Дніпропетровського державного університету внутрішніх справ. - 2017. - № 3
Наукові статті
Несправа М.В.

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